Characters: The subjects (people, animals, etc.) that the author writes about. The characters participate in events that move the plot forward.
Plot: Story plot is all of the events of the story, from beginning to end. Characters and the setting are introduced during the exposition, which is the first part of the story. Conflicts, or problems, occur during the rising action, and the biggest moment of the story is called the climax.
Setting: The setting refers to when and where a story takes place.
Conflict: The conflict is the problem the character faces. Examples: The conflict may be between two characters, between the main character and nature, or between the main character and himself.
Theme: The theme of a story is the lesson, message, or moral that the author is trying to communicate through the plot and characters.