Persuasion and Reasoning
Appeal: An appeal is a method of persuasion. An advertisement or essay appeals to you on two different levels...
1. Logical Appeal: "Logic" is "fact-based reasoning," so logical appeals include facts, statistics, expert opinions/interviews, and case studies (scientific research).
2. Emotional Appeal: Emotional appeals make you feel sad, happy, excited, jealous, or sympathetic. Emotional appeals use opinions, anecdotes, and (in the case of TV) images about the emotion they want you to feel.
Persuasion and Reasoning
To decide if an author or advertiser is doing a good job persuading, consider the following:
3 A's of Evidence
1. Adequacy: Is there enough evidence given?
2. Appropriateness: Is the right kind of evidence given?
3. Accuracy: Is the evidence correct?
Persuasion: Persuasion is trying to convince readers or viewers to do something, buy something, believe something, or change something.
Persuasion uses convincing visuals, convincing language, evidence, and your emotions.
Persuasive essay structure:
Types of Evidence:
1. Facts -- Last spring, 3 different buses broke down.
2. Examples -- Last spring...students were waiting be the side of the road for 2 hours.
3. Quotations -- "It was torture, waiting in our broken down bus that long," a student said.
4. Statistics -- 20% of our buses need repair at any given time.
5. Anecdotes -- One student complained that waiting in the bus so long that it gave her extreme back pain. She had to skip class when she finally arrived at school so she could go to the doctor. As a result, she missed a test and failed the class.
Forms of Poetry:
1. Concrete Poems: This type of poem uses line length to form a picture of an object/subject.
2. Haiku Poems: This type of poem is Japanese and consists of only 3 lines. The poem follows a pattern...
-Line 1: 5 syllables
-Line 2: 7 syllables
-Line 3: 5 syllables
Haiku poems are usually about nature, though they can be written about any subject. Because of the syllables limitations, haiku is generally written in fragments.
3. Diamante Poems: This type of poem uses line length to form a diamond shape. It is generally written to compare/contrast two related topics.
-Line 1: Topic #1
-Line 2: 2 adjectives about Topic #1
-Line 3: 3 -ing words about Topic #1
-Line 4: 4 nouns or a short phrase linking your two topics.
-Line 5: 3 -ing words about Topic #2
-Line 6: 2 adjectives about Topic #2
-Line 7: Topic #2
Please see the sample under "Document Downloads" on www.packwoman.com
biography - "life writing" (because "bio" means "life" in Greek, and "graph" means "writing" in Greek)
Biographies are written by someone other than the person who is the topic of the article/book.
Example: books, articles
autobiography - "self life writing" (because "auto" means "self" in Greek, "bio" means "life" in Greek, and "graph" means "writing" in Greek)
Autobiographies are written by the person about their own life.
Examples: diaries, journals, memoirs, books, articles, etc.
RESTAURANT/FOOD FOREIGN WORDS (Write these in a circle map):
a la mode: (French) a scoop of ice cream on top of a dessert
a la carte: (French) a food item purchased by itself
cafe: (French) a restaurant
bistro: (Italian) a restaurant
maitre 'd: (French) the manager/host of a VERY fancy restaurant
bon appetit: (French) "have a good meal"
entree: (French) the main dish of a meal
hors d'oeuvres: (French) appetizers, usually small finger foods eaten before a meal
Independent Clause: A complete sentence that can stand by itself.
Dependent Clause: An incomplete sentence that CAN'T stand by itself.
**IMPORTANT NOTE: A dependent clause needs to be attached to an independent clause (with a comma between them) in order to become a complete sentence.
Simple Sentence: One independent clause.
Compound Sentence: Two independent clauses joined by a comma/conjunction or a semi-colon.
Complex Sentence: One dependent clause, a comma, and one independent clause.
Definition: Hyperbole is a type of figurative language that is a HUGE exaggeration.
Examples: If I don't get that new video game, I am going to die!
I had to walk a million miles to get to the store when my car broke down.
It took forever for my little brother to listen to me.
Personification is a type of figurative language that gives non-human objects or animals humanlike characteristics.
Examples: The wind whispered through the trees.
My dog smiled up at me when I gave him a bone.
The tornado twirled furiously and made an angry mess.
Students must have their spiral notebook with them in class every day. Notes should be used on homework assignments, consulted during class, and kept for the duration of the school year.
Red = Spelling
Blue = Grammar
Green = Literature
Yellow = Academic Vocabulary
Orange = Informational Text
Purple = Writing